What to watch out when you are out eating candies (Post halloween version :))
Everyone knows that the candies are bad for your teeth for many reasons. However, if you absolutely HAVE to have candies in your life, or have kids who just cannot live without candies, here are few things to consider.
1. Sour candies: The more sour it is, the stronger acidity and its ability to weaken your teeth!
2. Frequency: It is not about the amount of candies you eat that give you cavities, but rather how frequent you eat them. Minimize the contact time between your teeth and candies.
3. Sticky candies: If you have any dental fillings or crowns, they are not made to resist strong “pulling” force which can occur with sticky candies and fall out. So be careful!
(Shh The rumor on the street is that Dr. Nate likes candies! Oops!)
Any questions? Ask away with comments or email us drnatedental@gmail.com!



What happens if the tooth needs to be pulled(extracted)? 🙁 That is certainly an unfortunate situation, but we have tooth replacement options for such cases

There are three options to replace a missing tooth(or teeth) and they are:

1. Bridge (Fixed Partial Denture)
2. Dental Implants (Implants)
3. Removable (Dentures)

Options 1 and 2 are strongly recommended for a single tooth replacement whereas Option 3 is recommended for multiple teeth replacements.

1. Bridge (FPD): It is an option where teeth adjacent to missing space are used as anchors and a fake tooth is hung between said anchors just like a real-life bridge!
The advantages of this option are that it can be completed relatively quickly (~2-4 weeks) and that it does not require surgeries.
The disadvantages of the bridge is that adjacent teeth need to be reduced and that should a problem occur with one of the teeth that is holding the bridge, the whole bridge needs to be fixed/redone.
Also the bridge is not recommended if the adjacent anchor teeth are unhealthy and/or “loose.”

2. Dental Implants: It is an option where a titanium “screw” (fixture) is placed inside the bone and fake tooth (“crown” or “cap”) is placed on top of it.
The advantages of this option are that the adjacent teeth do not need to be reduced and that it is longer lasting if proper care is taken. Also should a problem occur, it is easy to fix/replace.
The disadvantages of the implant are that it requires surgeries and that it takes a longer time compared to other options (3-4 months or longer).
The availability of implants depends on the bone anatomy around the missing space, so a careful examination is a must.

3. Removable or Dentures: It is an option where a dental prosthesis that one can insert and remove as needed is used as a replacement.
As I have mentioned above, because of required minimum size of the denture, it is only recommended if multiple teeth (3-4 and more) are missing.
The advantage of this option is that it is relatively less costly.
The disadvantage of dentures are that it requires many visits to make and adjust to patient’s comfort and that overall patient satisfaction is lower compared to other options due to many different reasons.

There are many other different kinds and options such as implant-supported dentures so thorough explanations and complete understanding of available options are needed when deciding which options would work the best for you.

If you have questions, you can visit our instagram or facebook and leave us a message!


A human adult tooth can be broken down into two big parts: Crown and Root(s). Crown of a tooth refers to the part of the tooth we can see above the gum line. It is not to be confused with a crown restoration (sometimes referred to as “cap over a tooth”) as this refers to the anatomical naming, not the dental treatment. Root(s) of a tooth refers to the part of the tooth we cannot see and is below the gum line (mostly). A tooth can have upto one to three roots. Four and five roots are possible but are rare.

The crown of the tooth consists of three layers: Enamel, Dentin, and Pulp.

Enamel is the hard outermost layer of the crown of the tooth. As it is the outermost layer of the tooth, it can be easily visualized by just simply looking at the teeth’s surface. Composed of inorganic materials such as calcium and phosphate, which makes up a structure called hydroxyapatite, enamel is the protective layer that protects the tooth from various physical and chemical agents.

Dentin is the second layer of the crown of the tooth. It makes up the most volume of the crown of the tooth. Dentin is also responsible for the color of the tooth – light yellow. Sometimes when one has mechanical wear or chemical wear on the tooth, dentin is exposed and can be visualized.

Pulp is the innermost layer of the crown of the tooth and at the center of the tooth. It consists of live nerve tissues and subsequent blood vessels that are connected to the more complex nerve/circulation system of the body. It can only be visualized by the dentist when an access is made through the enamel/dentin layer by removing said layers. Pulp is responsible for making the teeth have cold/hot sensation along with pain. It also is responsible for proprioception of the teeth, enabling it to sense the pressure that comes from the chewing or biting.

The root of the tooth consists of three layers as well: Cementum, Dentin, and Root Canal(pulp). Cementum is the outermost layer of the root of the tooth. It is similar to dentin in its composition but is softer due to having less inorganic material content and more organic content such as collagen. It surrounds the entire length and diameter of the root of the tooth. The delineation at which enamel ends and the cementum starts is named cementoenamel junction(CEJ).

Dentin is the second layer of the root of the tooth and is continuous from the crown part of the tooth.

Root canal is the innermost layer of the root of the tooth and is a small tube-like structure that contains pulp inside thus being called a canal. Root canal treatment is named after this part of the tooth as the treatment effectively occurs inside of this part of the root.

This concludes the brief(?!) and simple breakdown of the basic anatomy of a tooth. I know… it’s so very interesting 😀 As with any other medical knowledge and facts, learning about teeth and what goes on inside one’s mouth can be overwhelming and complicated. I am here to try to explain in somewhat detailed but understandable terms as best as I can. My goal is for my patients to understand on a basic level his/her dental health and be able to make informed decisions about everyday dental hygiene and treatments, should he/she needs them.

If you have questions, you can visit our instagram or facebook and leave us a message!

Blausen.com staff (2014). “Medical gallery of Blausen Medical 2014“. WikiJournal of Medicine 1 (2). DOI:10.15347/wjm/2014.010. ISSN 2002-4436